ICAO Requirements and Guidance
The successful treatment of ice and snow deposits on aeroplanes on the ground is an absolute necessity to the safety
of winter operations. Requirements and guidance can be found in the following ICAO documents:
Annex 6 Operation of Aircraft, Part I International Commercial Air Transport
References to ground de-icing/anti-icing are in Part I, 220.127.116.11 with a requirement for
de-icing/anti-icing treatment and inspection prior to take-off in suspected or known ground icing conditions:
18.104.22.168 A flight to be planned or expected to operate in suspected or known ground icing conditions shall
not take off unless the aeroplane has been inspected for icing and, if necessary, has been given appropriate
de-icing/anti-icing treatment. Accumulation of ice or other contaminants shall be removed so that the aeroplane
is kept in an airworthy condition prior to take-off.
Note.- Guidance material is given in the Manual of Aircraft Ground De-icing/Anti-icing Operations
Part I, Appendix 2, 5.6 requires instructions for the conduct and control of ground de-icing/anti-icing operations
to be included in an operator's Operations Manual.
The Preparation of an Operations Manual (Doc 9376) Second Edition 1997, 8.7.3 also provides guidance
on the content of an operations manual with respect to de-icing/anti-icing operations.
Annex 14 Aerodromes, Volume I Aerodrome Design and Operations and the
Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 2 Taxiways, Aprons and Holding Bays (Doc 9157) also contain references
to ground de-icing/anti-icing requirements.
The Manual of Aircraft Ground De-icing/Anti-icing Operations (Doc 9640) Second Edition 2000,
provides a general description of the various factors relating to aeroplane icing on the ground. It addresses the minimum
procedural requirements necessary to conduct safe and efficient operations during those conditions which require
aeroplane de-icing and anti-icing activities. The "clean aircraft concept" is described. The second edition refers to Types
I, II, III and IV fluids and also to methods for de-icing which do not use fluids. Examples of application and holdover time
tables are provided for Types I, II and IV fluids. The second edition also contains material on equipment, quality assurance
programmes and the annual updating of holdover time guidelines and de-icing/anti-icing procedures. The primary purpose in
the publication of this manual was to encourage international standardization of de-icing/anti-icing activities.
These documents can be purchased directly from
ICAO through the Document Sales Unit. Training and qualification of de-icing personnel is the responsibility of the operators and the States concerned.
ICAO does not have requirements concerning the licensing of personnel for the conduct of de-icing/anti-icing operations.
Annual updating of information on qualified fluids, holdover time guidelines and procedures
Holdover times and procedures are continually updated by an international
group of experts under the auspices of the Society of Automobile Engineers
(SAE) G-12 Committee on Aircraft Ground De-icing/Anti-icing through its Holdover
Time Subcommittee. This group of experts is composed of representatives of
the world's airlines, anti-icing fluid manufacturers, aviation regulatory
authorities and research organizations.
De-icing/anti-icing fluids are qualified to the appropriate specification
by certified laboratories. Qualified fluids are tested jointly by the United
States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and Transport Canada to establish
the fluid endurance time data, from which the holdover time guidelines are
generated by the Holdover Time Subcommittee. The de-icing/anti-icing procedures
are developed by the Methods Subcommittee. The holdover time guidelines and
procedures are approved by the SAE Aerospace Council.
The approved documents are published by: Transport Canada in an Advisory
Circular; the United States FAA in a Flight Standards Information Bulletin
for Air Transportation (FSAT); the
in Aerospace Recommended Procedure ARP 4737; and the International Standards
Organization (ISO) in ISO 11076.
The FAA and Transport Canada publications are published annually and are
usually available prior to the start of winter in the Northern Hemisphere.
The FAA and Transport Canada also publish a list of qualified de-icing/anti-icing
fluids, together with holdover time guidelines for specific fluids that have
superior performance to the generic tables.
Links to other sites:
Information and Training Material on Ground and In-flight Icing
Knowing in which conditions aircraft icing can occur, how to detect it,
appropriate measures to be taken and recovery techniques in case of wing or
tail plane stall is crucial for the safe operation of aircraft. There is
training material in various media which is available either freely or for sale.
To increase the level of pilot proficiency in this subject, ICAO is providing
information on training material available to the aviation community.
If you would like to have training material listed on this page, please provide us
with a complimentary copy for evaluation.
Please note that ICAO does not approve or recommend any information or training material
listed below. ICAO accepts no responsibility or liability whether direct or indirect,
as to the currency, accuracy or quality of the information, or for any consequences of its use.
Information and Training Material
The NASA Glenn Research
Center, Icing Branch, makes the following videos and courses available:
- Icing for General Aviation Pilots
Icing for General Aviation Pilots presents practical information
to help pilots avoid ice, detect ice, minimize exposure and safely exit icing conditions during each phase
of flight. The effects of icing on aircraft performance, control upsets (wing and tail stalls), and
recovery procedures are also discussed. 55 minutes.
- Icing for Regional & Corporate Pilots
This training video is intended primarily
for pilots of turboprop aircraft. This video discusses ice protection systems, how ice
builds up on the aircraft and the symptoms thereof, the effects of ice on both the
performance degradation and handling qualities, suggested recovery techniques from a roll
or pitch upset and finally, the hazard of Supercooled Large Droplets (SLD). 37 minutes.
- Tailplane Icing
The intent of this educational video is to provide information
about ice contaminated horizontal stabilizers. It is intended primarily for pilots who
may encounter in-flight icing. This video presents a physical description of the tailplane
icing problem, symptoms of ice contamination and suggested recovery procedures. This video
was produced as a result of insights gained from the NASA/FAA Tailplane Icing Program.
- A Pilot's Guide to Ground Icing
This is a free, online course primarily intended for professional pilots who make their own operational de-icing
and anti-icing decisions. This includes pilots who fly business, corporate, air taxi, or freight operations in fixed-wing aircraft ranging from
business jets to single-engine turboprops.
The course discusses the risks of contamination, cues to alert the pilot to ground icing hazards, and actions to help ensure safe operations.
- A Pilot's Guide to In-Flight Icing
This is a free, online course primarily intended for the general aviation pilot who flies aircraft certified for flight in icing, although much of the
information is applicable to all pilots. With an operational focus, this course provides tools pilots can use to deal with in-flight icing.
Emphasis is on avoidance, detection and exit, as well as the effects of ice accretion on performance and handling and the particular hazard of
Supercooled Large Droplet (SLD) icing.